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Compiling Bibliography

Use a single list which integrates all the different types of source material you have used. The exception is where you have discussed a number of primary sources (such as novels, films, ancient sources, letters, historical documents etc), when you should separate your bibliography into primary and secondary sources. All lists should be ordered alphabetically by first-named author's surname or organisation if there is no named author.

A reference list should be treated the same way as a bibliography unless you are using a numeric referencing system. In this case, sources are assigned a number when they first appear in the text, and are listed in numerical order.

Example bibliography using Harvard referencing:

Anon. (1981). Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas. British Medical Journal, 283, 628.

Bould, M. & Reid, M. (eds) (2005). Parietal Games: Critical Writings by and on M. John Harrison. Cambridge: Science Fiction Foundation.

Hamilakis, Y., Pluciennik, M. & Tarlow, S. (2001). Academic Performances, Artistic Presentations. Assemblage, 6. (accessed 08/07/02).

Royal Horticultural Society (n.d.). Plant finder: Genista. Online at (accessed 25/08/07).

Shahabudin, K. (2006). From Greek Myth to Hollywood Story: Explanatory Narrative in Troy. In M. M. Winkler (ed.), Troy: From Homer's Iliad to Hollywood Epic. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 107-118.

Turner, J.E., Henry, L.A. & Smith. P.T. (2000). The development of the use of long-term knowledge to assist short-term recall. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. Section A. 53.2, 457-478.

Watch this brief video tutorial on Compiling a bibliography (link will open an external website):

Compiling a Bibliography

To make the process of compiling your Bibliography easier, you may wish to use the software program Citation 5. This is available to you via the Novell Applications menu.

Nudgee College uses the Harvard system for Referencing. The following examples provide a format for students to use when compiling a Bibliography.


Bibliography Format

Your Bibliography is to be arranged alphabetically by author (or title, if no author) in one single list, and placed at the end of the assignment. All material quoted or used in the text of an assignment must be acknowledged by citation and referenced in the Bibliography.

  • One Author
    Windley-Daoust, J. 2001, Living Justice and Peace, Saint Mary's Press, Winona, Minnesota.
  • Two Authors
    Moody, P.E. & Morley, R.E. 1999, The Technology Machine, Free Press, New York, NY.
  • More than two authors but less than five
    Vickers-Rich, P., Rich, T.H., Rich, L.S. & Rich, T. 1997, Australia's Ancient Birds, Kangaroo Press, Kenthurst, NSW.
  • More than five authors
    Mudge,P ( 2003, Living religion: Studies of Religion for Senior Students, Longman Cheshire. Melbourne.
  • Author unknown
    Guide for Effective Expository Essay Writing 1998, University of Queensland Press, Brisbane.
  • Editor but no author
    Healy, J. (ed.) 2003, Drug use in Sport, Spinney Press, Sydney.
  • Article by one Author which is part of a work edited or compiled by another
    Abboud, Dr. A. 2003, "The Stem Cell Debate" quoted in Healy, J. (ed.), Stem Cell Research, Spinney Press, Sydney,  pp.25-28.
  • Corporate Authorship
    Australian Bureau of Statistics 2002, 2002 Year Book Australia (No. 84), Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.
  • Book – edition
    Morton, JS 1984, Wind power: an overview, 2nd ed., Melbourne University Press, Melbourne.
  • Magazine Article - Author known
    Abernathy, M. 2003, "The cable spy", The Bulletin, vol.120, no. 6357, pp. 68-69.
  • Magazine Article - Author unknown
    "Longer working hours" 2003, Social Action, issue 244, pp. 5-7.
  • Newspapers
    Cameron, F. 2003, "There's movement at the top end stations", The Australian, 14 February, pp.27.
  • Document or article from Online Database
    Wilson, T 2005, "Lack of donor support threatens food supplies for 2 million refugees", Africa News Service, May 18 2005, in Expanded Academic, viewed 6 June 2005
  • Interviews
    Stephen, R. 2005, Buddhism (Interview), 18 February, Brisbane.
    Quille, D. 1994, The Way Things Work (CD ROM) Dorling Kindersley, London.
  • DVD
    Pay it Forward 2001, DVD Warner Home Video, Pyrmont, NSW. Starring Kevin Spacey and Helen Hunt, produced by Steven Reuther.
  • Videos
    The Blue Planet (Episodes 1-3) videorecording 2001, BBC Worldwide, London.
  • Web Video Clip
    The Overlander 2007, Aboriginal tent embassy, Canberra, online video, accessed 31 July 2007, . NOTE: It is best not to use the use the name of the person who posted the video clip as the author (unless they produced it)
  • World Wide Web
    Cornish, J. 2000, "Gander Academy's Tropical Rainforest Theme", Gander Academy'sHurricane Resources on the World Wide Web viewed 11 February, 2002
  • Email
    Wright, AT 2010, email, 6 June. NOTE: Attachments sent as part of an email should be cited according to the document type, not as an email. Email addresses should never be published without the specific permission of the owner of the address. Intext citation of an email is as any personal communication: "AT Wright confirmed this by email on 6 June 2005."
  • Reference to an encyclopedia article
    "Aluminium" 2001, World Book Encyclopedia, vol. 1, World Book, London, pp.391-398.
  • Reference to whole set of encyclopedias
    The Environment Encyclopedia 2000, Marshall Cavendish, New York, NY, 11 volumes.
  • Podcasts (for audio podcasts use “accessed” rather than “viewed”)
    Star Stuff with Stuart Gary, podcast, ABC Podcasting, 10 March, accessed 12 March, 2010,

For a more comprehensive explanation on referencing: Library Referencing Guides USQ @