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Young Worker Safety Research Paper

Young Worker Injury Deaths: A Historical Summary of Surveillance and Investigative Findings
NIOSH Publication No. 2017-168
This document presents surveillance data summaries on young worker fatal injuries covering the 20-year period from 1994 to 2013. These summaries provide an assessment of fatality patterns and trends by industry, state, region and various demographic and injury variables. Complementing the summary of surveillance data is the presentation of investigative data summaries from case reports of fatal injuries to young workers for a 29-year period, 1982 to 2010. The investigations provide a richness of detail not available from the surveillance data. Collectively, the surveillance and investigative data summaries in this document provide insight for identifying issues affecting employed youth, recommending prevention measures, and assessing the effectiveness of child labor laws.

Foundational workplace safety and health competencies for the emerging workforce
Journal of Safety Research: December, 2016 / 59:43-51
A manuscript discussing workplace safety and health competencies for the emerging workforce.

Work-Related Motor Vehicle Crashes: Preventing Injuries to Young Drivers: What Employers Should Know
NIOSH Publication No. 2013-153
This fact sheet will help employers be more aware of the risk of motor vehicle crashes among younger workers. It gives information about Federal and state laws that cover workplace driving and offers recommendations to employers for preventing motor vehicle crashes among younger workers. Finally, it provides links to useful resources on the Internet.

Work-Related Motor Vehicle Crashes: Preventing Injuries to Young Drivers: What Parents Should Know
NIOSH Publication No. 2013-152
If you are a parent of a teen or young adult who drives as part of his or her job, it is important that you understand the risk for motor vehicle crashes at work. This fact sheet gives information about Federal and state laws that cover workplace driving and offers recommendations for you and your son or daughter for preventing motor vehicle crashes among younger workers. Finally, it provides links to useful resources on the Internet.

Health and Safety of Young Workers: Proceedings of a U.S. and Canadian Series of Symposia
NIOSH Publication No. 2013-144
This document is a compilation of white papers (or subsequently published articles) that were developed through a series of symposia co-funded by NIOSH and the Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation. The symposia brought together scholars from multiple disciplines, practitioners and business representatives from the U.S. and Canada to consider the implications of youth employment, and to make recommendations for moving forward, considering the complex relationships of work with other components of youth development. White papers and articles were authored by business scholars, epidemiologists, health communicators, physicians, psychologists, and sociologists.

Are You A Working Teen?
NIOSH Publication No. 2012-130
Document targeted to teen workers that answers questions about teen worker rights, hazard recognition, as well as regulations on the hours teens are permitted to work by law.
en Espanol

A Story of Impact: Guidelines for Children’s Agricultural Tasks
NIOSH Publication No. 2011-129
This document concisely describes the impact of the NIOSH-supported effort to develop the North American Guidelines for Children’s Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT). The NAGCAT have contributed to reductions in childhood farm injuries by providing parents with guidance on farm work tasks that match a child’s physical, mental, and psychosocial abilities.

Evaluating Teen Farmworker Education: An Evaluation of a High School ESL Health and Safety Curriculum
NIOSH Publication No. 2011-113
This document concisely describes the results and impact of a NIOSH-supported study that demonstrated that a school-based English as a Second Language (ESL) Curriculum was an effective mechanism for reaching hired teen farmworkers and teaching them about occupational safety and health.

Occupational Injuries and Deaths Among Younger Workers — United States, 1998-2007
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: April 23, 2010 / 59(15);449-455.
This article includes fatal and nonfatal data for workers 15 to 24 years of age, with data reported specifically for workers 15 to 17 years of age. The article includes trend analyses as well as data on worker characteristics and events leading to injury and death.

Injuries to Youth on Farms and Safety Recommendations, U.S. 2006
NIOSH Publication No. 2009-117
This pamphlet describes risks for children who live and work on farms, and provides recommendations for preventing childhood farm injuries.

Youth@Work: Talking Safety CurriculumUpdated 2010
NIOSH Publication No. 2007-136
Curriculum in occupational safety and health that can be used in classroom or other group training settings. The curriculum has been customized for each state and Puerto-Rico to address state-specific rules and regulations, and includes instructions for teachers and a step-by-step guide for presenting the material.

Can You Dig It? A Safety & Health Guide for Young Workers in Landscaping, Greenhouses & Nurseries [PDF – 1800 KB]
This pamphlet developed by several federal and state agencies is targeted to workers less than 24 years of age and provides information on relevant age restrictions in federal child labor laws, safety and health hazards associated with this work, employee rights, and contact information for relevant federal agencies.
en Espanol

Injuries to Youth on Hispanic Farm Operations, 2003
NIOSH Publication No. 2007-162
This pamphlet describes risks for children who live and work on farms operated by Hispanic farmers, and provides recommendations for preventing childhood farm injuries.

Injuries to Youth on Racial Minority Farm Operations, 2003
NIOSH Publication No. 2007-163
This pamphlet describes risks for children who live and work on farms operated by racial minority farmers, and provides recommendations for preventing childhood farm injuries.

Reduce Injuries and Fatalities to Working Youth [PDF – 2.3 MB]
NIOSH Traumatic Injury Program Evidence Package, Chapter 5, Goal 8
Section in the NIOSH Traumatic Injury Research and Prevention Program Evidence Package reviewed by the National Academies of Sciences that describes NIOSH efforts to reduce injuries and fatalities to working youth, and an assessment of the impact of these efforts. Full Traumatic Injury Evidence Package

Child Labor – Agriculture [PDF – 1.84 MB]
NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Program Evidence Package, Chapter 4, Goal 2, Section 4.1
Section in the NIOSH Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Program Evidence Package reviewed by the National Academies of Sciences that describes NIOSH efforts to reduce childhood farm injuries, and an assessment of the impact of these efforts. Full Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing Evidence Package

School Chemistry Laboratory Safety Guide
NIOSH Publication No. 2007-107
This document attempts to provide teachers, and ultimately their students, with information so that they can take the appropriate precautionary actions in order to prevent or minimize hazards, harmful exposures, and injuries in the laboratory.

Global Occupational Health Network Newsletter on Child Labour & Adolescent Workers [PDF – 352 KB]
Includes a number of articles on international child labour and efforts to improve the safety and health of child laborers worldwide, including an article by NIOSH researchers on efforts to develop curricula to promote young worker safety and health.

Working Together for Safety – A State Team Approach to Preventing Occupational Injuries in Young People
NIOSH Publication No. 2005-134 (May 2005)
Contains two case studies that demonstrate the value of the State team approach to fostering safe and healthful youth employment, and also describes the experiences and activities of State teams in the Northeast; the products developed by the teams, and key resources for other States interested in creating their own State teams.

NIOSH Safety Checklist Program For Schools
NIOSH Publication No. 2004-101 (October 2003)
In one easy-to-read source, the Safety Checklist Program provides information needed by schools to maintain safe classrooms, shops, and labs for teachers and students in career-technical education. This information can also be used by colleges and universities with occupational safety and health programs.
en Espanol

NIOSH Alert: Preventing Deaths, Injuries and Illnesses of Young Workers
NIOSH Publication No. 2003-128 (July 2003)
Summarizes data on young worker injuries and illnesses, provides case reports, and makes recommendations for prevention measures that can be taken by young workers, employers, educators and parents.
en Espanol

Safe Work For Youth In Construction – Information For Employers
NIOSH Publication No. 2004-113 (December 2003)
This pamphlet describes risks for young workers doing construction work and provides recommendations to construction employers on how to prevent young worker injuries and deaths.
en Espanol

Preventing Work-Related Burn Injury to Youth Working in Fast Food Restaurants–Fact Sheet [PDF – 77 KB]
This fact sheet describes risks for burns to young workers in fast food restaurants and provides recommendations for burn prevention.

NIOSH Recommendations to the U.S. Department of Labor for Changes to Hazardous Orders(May 2002)
The U.S. Department of Labor, NIOSH and others have identified the need to assess the adequacy of existing HOs to protect working youth. NIOSH developed a report based on a review of data and the scientific literature.

Safe Jobs for Youth(May 2001)
This document describes information disseminated by NIOSH in May 2001 to high school principals across the United States. The purpose of the mailing was to inform high schools and students about potential hazards of summer employment and steps students could take to stay safe.

Promoting Safe Work for Young Workers
NIOSH Publication No. 99-141 (November 1999)
This guide is for anyone interested in young workers safety and health issues. It is based on the experiences of three NIOSH-funded community-based young worker projects.

Childhood Work-Related Agricultural Fatalities–Minnesota, 1994-1997.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: April 3, 1999 / 48(16);332-5.
Journal article published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, a weekly publication of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Protecting Youth at Work: Health, Safety, and Development of Working Children and Adolescents in the United States (1998)
A book available for free online reading.This book provides historical perspective on working children and adolescents in America and explores the framework of child labor laws that govern that work. The committee presents a wide range of data and analysis on the scope of youth employment, factors that put children and adolescents at risk in the workplace, and the positive and negative effects of employment, including data on educational attainment and lifestyle choices.

Youth Agricultural Work-Related Injuries Treated in Emergency Departments–United States, October 1995-September 1997.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: September 11,1998 / 47(35);733-7.
Journal article published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, a weekly publication of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Child Labor Research Needs – Recommendations from the NIOSH Child Labor Working Team: Special Hazard Review
NIOSH Publication No. 97-143 (August 1997)
Information about youth employment, occupational injury and illness in young workers, Federal and State regulation of child labor, and national objectives for the occupational safety and health of youths.

Control of Scrap Paper Baler Crushing Hazards: Hazard Control 14
NIOSH Publication No. 97-113 (1997)
A Hazard Control detailing an amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act regarding 16 and 17 year old workers and the operation and maintenance of paper balers. The ANSI Standard for “Baling Equipment – Safety Requirements” is also summarized.

Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses Associated with Child Labor–United States, 1993
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: June 7, 1996 / 45(22);464-8.
Journal article published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, a weekly publication of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Agencies Launch Effort to Help Teen Workers Stay Safe this Winter (December 2004)
OSHA press release announcing a collaborative effort of numerous federal agencies including NIOSH (Federal Network for Young Worker Safety and Health) to raise awareness of young worker safety in winter jobs.

Feds Launch Effort to Help Teen Workers Stay Safe and Healthy (May 2004)
OSHA press release announcing a collaborative effort of numerous federal agencies including NIOSH (Federal Network for Young Worker Safety and Health) to raise awareness of young worker safety in summer jobs.

Forklift Operations by Young Workers Subject of Safety Initiative (February 2004)
OSHA press release describing joint effort with NIOSH to raise awareness of hazards of youth operating forklifts.

Preventing Teen Worker Deaths, Injuries: NIOSH Issues New, Expanded Bulletin (August 2003)
A NIOSH Update announcing the availability of NIOSH Alert” Preventing Deaths, Injuries and Illnesses of Young Workers” which updated and expanded upon a1995 NIOSH Alert.

Teens Face Serious Risk of Job-Related Death in Agricultural Operations, NIOSH Finds (September 2002)
A NIOSH Update announcing new data demonstrating that fatality rates for youth in agriculture were more than twice the overall rate for occupational injury fatalities in the U.S.

NIOSH Issues Farm Youth Death, Injury Data, Introduces Web Information Resource
(September 2001)
A NIOSH Update announcing the availability of new data on childhood agricultural injuries.

Teen Worker Fatalities in Diverse Industries Show Importance of Injury Prevention Efforts
(June 26, 2000)
A NIOSH Update encouraging efforts to improve young worker safety prior to youth employment increasing with summer vacation. The Update included 6 case reports highlighting diverse circumstances in which youth were fatally injured at work.

Most Teen Worker Injuries in Restaurants Occur in Fast Food, NIOSH Study Finds
(December 1999)
A NIOSH Update announcing new findings on teen injuries in fast food restaurants.

Safety, Health Precautions for Young Workers Highlighted in NIOSH Poster to Schools
(June 1998)
A NIOSH update announcing a poster and other information emphasizing safety and health at work for students under 18 years of age.

Job Death Rates for 16-, 17-Year-Olds Comparable to or Higher Than Adult Rates for Leading Causes, NIOSH Finds – Update ( December 1997)
A NIOSH update describing a 1997 study examining the three leading categories of work-related fatalities among 16 and 17 years olds.

NIOSH Highlights Young Worker Injury Prevention as Summer Employment Season Nears – NIOSH Update (June 1997)
A NIOSH Update describing NIOSH distribution of young worker injury prevention information prior to the summer youth employment season.

NIOSH Launches National Research Program to Protect Children on Farms From Injury, Death (April 21, 1997)
HHS press release announcing the launch of a national research program designed to protect children on farms from illness, injury, and death.

NIOSH Study Finds Work Injuries, Illnesses Among Young Employees Pervasive, Preventable – NIOSH Update (June 1996)
NIOSH Update announcing new findings on the high incidence of young worker injuries and illnesses based on data reported by employers.

NIOSH Warns: Employment May Be Hazardous for Adolescent Workers – NIOSH Update
(July 17, 1995)
NIOSH Update summarizing data on young worker injuries and illnesses, and providing recommendations for prevention measures that could be taken by employers, parents, educators and youths.

NIOSH Warns: Employment Can Be Dangerous and Deadly for Adolescents – NIOSH Update<br />(May 19, 1994)
NIOSH Update announcing new findings on the incidence of young worker injuries and illnesses based on analysis of data from emergency departments and death certificates.

Fatality Investigations

NIOSH and state partners have investigated deaths of youth less than 18 years of age through the Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program. The purpose of these investigations is to better understand the circumstances that result in youth worker injury deaths. Each report includes a summary of the event resulting in the youth worker’s death, and recommendations that employers and others can take to prevent future similar deaths.

Literature Search

Other Relevant Publications

Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses — United States, 2004
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: April 27, 2007/56(16);393-397

Preventing Worker Injuries and Deaths from Mobile Crane Tip-Over, Boom Collapse, and Uncontrolled Hoisted Loads
NIOSH Publication No. 2006-142 (September 2006)

Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Among Workers Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments — United States, 2003
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: April 28, 2006 / 55(16); 449-452

Data On Young Worker Injuries And Illnesses In Worker Health Chartbook, 2004
NIOSH Publication No. 2004-146, pp. 266-276
This section of the NIOSH Worker Health Chartbook describes data sources and includes downloadable charts with national data on fatal injuries, nonfatal injuries and illnesses, and data from a Massachusetts (SENSOR) case-based reporting system of work-related injuries to adolescents.

NIOSH Alert: Preventing Falls of Workers Through Skylights and Roof and Floor Openings
NIOSH Publication No. 2004-156 (August 2004)
en Espanol

NIOSH Alert: Preventing Deaths and Injuries While Compacting or Baling Refuse Material
NIOSH Publication No. 2003-124 (July 2003)
en Espanol

Work-Related Roadway Crashes – Challenges and Opportunities For Prevention
NIOSH Publication No. 2003-119 (September 2003)

NIOSH Alert: Preventing Injuries and Deaths From Falls During Construction and Maintenance of Telecommunication Towers
NIOSH Publication No. 2001-156
en Espanol

Fatal Injuries To Civilian Workers in the United States, 1980-1995: National and State Profiles
NIOSH Publication No. 2001-129S

Tracking Occupational Injuries, Illnesses, and Hazards: The NIOSH Surveillance Strategic Plan
NIOSH Publication No. 2001-118 (January 2001)

Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments – United States, 1998.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: April 27, 2001 / 50(16);313-7.

Surveillance for Nonfatal Occupational Injuries Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments – United States, 1996.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: April 24, 1998 / 47(15);302-6.

The study examined the relationship between age and I) safety perception; ii) job satisfaction; iii) compliance with safety management policies; and (iv) accident frequency. Participants were Ghanaian industrial workers (N = 320) categorized into 4 age groups: 19–29 years; 30–39 years; 40–50 years; and 51 years and above. Workplace safety perception was assessed with Hayes, Perander, Smecko, and Trask's (1998) 50-item Work Safety Scale (WSS): a scale that effectively captures the dimensions identified by safety experts to influence perceptions of workplace safety. ANOVA was used to test for differences in the mean scores of the 4 groups. Post Hoc analysis revealed differences of statistical significance between the 2 younger cohorts and the 2 older cohorts. The results indicated a positive association between age and safety perception. Older workers had the best perceptions on safety, indicated the highest level of job satisfaction, were the most compliant with safety procedures, and recorded the lowest accident involvement rate. From a practical perspective, understanding age-related perceptions of workplace safety would benefit management's decisions regarding workers' adaptability, general work effectiveness, accident frequency, implementation of safety management policies, and handling of age-related accident characteristics.