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Environmental Psychology

...Environmental Psychology Environmental psychology is the study of the environment’s affect on humans as well as the effect humans have on the environment (Clayton & Myers, 2009). The theories of evolutionary psychology and biophilia seek to explain the extremely complex relationship between humans and their natural environment. Environmental research within this discipline has obtained empirical evidence, which proves helpful in establishing guidelines by which humans can begin to fully understand their role in protecting and sustaining nature as nature, in turn, sustains survival for humans. According to Clayton and Myers (2009), environmental psychology is “a specialty within psychology that studies the reciprocal influences of people and their environments, characterized by both systematic theory and a concern for practical application” (p. 209). The goal of environmental psychology is to create a mutually beneficial relationship between people and their environment while recognizing the reciprocal influence each has on the other. Because of the codependent nature of this relationship with the environment providing humans with resources for survival such as food, water, and shelter, it is imperative for humans to cultivate and protect their natural environment (Clayton & Myers, 2009). Theoretical Approaches to Environmental Psychology Biophilia Biophilia suggests that humans have an innate connection with other living systems within their natural environment,...

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What Is Environmental Psychology

...What is Environmental Psychology Beverly Beliveau July 23,2012 University of Phoenix Environmental psychology is an area where two disciplines are combined to try and show that between psychology and environmental and that a study of mutual effect is present. Communities or neighborhoods and family living all have different cultures living among them and environmental psychology helps to make things more pleasant and how to improve the living surroundings and understanding of the behavior. The Basic and easiest ways to describe environmental psychology in simpler terms is valued and needs. The world that is habited have different interactions with one another and most importantly give way for how psychology is formed. The center of environmental psychology is part of science that studies behaviors in a direction of developments. Environmental psychology gives detail to experiences, the behavior and the environment, the two theories are called stimulus load and arousal. Stimulus load theory is a limited volume of information that is processed through human beings. When elements have more attention to them than it reduces stimuli,......

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...First_Pages Lut30352_ch01_001-030.qxd 8/7/09 3:26 PM Page 1 Part One Environmental and Organizational Context 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction to Organizational Behavior: An Evidence-Based Approach Environmental Context: Globalization, Diversity, and Ethics Organizational Context: Design and Culture Organizational Context: Reward Systems 5 31 57 88 EVIDENCE-BASED CONSULTING PRACTICES A major component of the evidence-based theme of this text and the link to practice are these part openers from the world-famous Gallup Organization. Gallup draws from its internationally recognized survey science and cadre of internal and external researchers (e.g., the author of this text and a Nobel Prize winner in behavioral economics are Gallup Senior Scientists), publishes its findings in the top academic journals such as Journal of Applied Psychology and provides this evidenced-based perspective and representative practices for each text part. Gallup is the recognized world leader in the measurement and analysis of human attitudes, opinions, and behavior, building on over three-quarters of a century of success. Gallup employs many of the world’s leading scientists in management, economics, psychology, and sociology. Gallup performance management systems help organizations maximize employee productivity and increase customer engagement through measurement tools, management solutions, and strategic advisory services. Gallup’s 2000 professionals deliver services on-site at client......

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Environmental Psychology

...|Principles of Environmental Science | Copyright © 2011, 2009 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Course Description This course will provide students with the scientific principles, concepts, and methodologies that are required to identify and analyze risks associated with environmental problems, and examine alternative solutions for resolving or preventing these problems. Policies Faculty and students/learners will be held responsible for understanding and adhering to all policies contained within the following two documents: • University policies: You must be logged into the student website to view this document. • Instructor policies: This document is posted in the Course Materials forum. University policies are subject to change. Be sure to read the policies at the beginning of each class. Policies may be slightly different depending on the modality in which you attend class. If you have recently changed modalities, read the policies governing your current class modality. Course Materials Berg, L. R., & Hager, M. C. (2009). Visualizing environmental science (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. All electronic materials are available on the student website. |Week 1 |Details |Points | |Objectives |Determine how science and technology are related to......

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Environmental Psychology

...ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY INTRODUCTION: In play, the stage and scenery provide the context of what is going on: the kind of room the characters are in, the way it is decorated, and the amount and nature of its furnishings help us to interpret what is happening. They provide meaning for the actor’s and actresses’ actions and determine where they can walk, lean, or otherwise interact with props. For the play, the stage and scenery is the environment in which the story unfolds. The meaning of behaviour on the stage and what cab and cannot be done are determined by this environment. The theater would be far less entertaining or educational without the context provided by its environment. ENVIRONMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY: In real life, our behaviour also occurs in the context of an environment, one that is constantly changing and rich in information. Unlike the setting on a stage, however, it provides more than meaning. Our environment also provides us with basic needs for life, including food, water, and air to breathe. It is also modified by our actions, and is irrevocably altered whenever one of us changes it. Our environment includes all of our natural and built surroundings, and is delicately balanced system that can easily be bruised or damaged. Whenever we change some part of it, other parts also change, and these other changes may be unintended or even dangerous. Concerns about what we were doing to our environment reached unprecedented prominence in the 1960s and have......

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Environmental Psychology

... LEARNING UNIT: Critical Studies: Interior Design, 3rd Year. MODULE TITLE: Environmental Psychology (Psychology Of Space) SEMESTER: One TERM: One STUDENT NAME: Natasha Millar STUDENT NUMBER: 13-015 | | Environmental Psychology examines the interrelationship between environments and human effect, cognition and behaviour (Bechtel & Churchman 2002:187). The environment in which we are situated influences our behaviour and correspondingly our behaviour influences our environment (Kopec 2012:1). Using Kopec’s Cognitive, Socio-cultural and Neurobiology perspectives, I will be analysing four spaces within Section 4 of Constitution Hill, and how these environments have psychologically impacted on the prisoners by visually analysing the prison through the use of illustrations and research. The Socio-Cultural perspective explores behavioural and learning perspectives. Our daily social conditions such as status, gender norms and expectations, operate in conjunction with cultural traits such as tradition, ethnicity and our religious beliefs, in order to produce certain behaviours (Kopec 2012:5). The Cognitive behavioural theory focuses on the way in which we process information and how that information then affects our behaviour (Kopec 2012:5). This particular perspective will focus on how a prisoner gains knowledge, or becomes aware of events or objects within his...

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What Is Environmental Psychology?

...What is Environmental Psychology? Paper Psychology is a broad and ever-growing field that involves the study of the human mind and behavior. Within the field of psychology, there are various different branches, or sub-fields, one of which is environmental psychology. This branch of psychology focuses on the relationship between individuals and their surroundings, such as their natural environments, social environments, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments (De Young, 1999). One of the main goals of the field of environmental psychology is to solve complex environmental problems for the betterment of individual well-being within society. Throughout the course of this paper, the discipline of environmental psychology will be examined. This paper will define the discipline of environmental psychology, compare and contrast at least two major theoretical approaches to environmental psychology, and explain the importance of research within the field of environmental psychology. Environment Psychology Defined Environmental psychology is a relatively new branch of psychology that focuses on the study of the interrelationship between the environment and human behavior. Within this field, the term environment is broadly defined to include the natural, or physical, environments, the social environments, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments (De Young, 1999). Unlike other braches of psychology, such as......

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Environmental and Evolutionary Psychology Transcript

... Environmental and Evolutionary Psychology Transcript PSYCH/635 February 1, 2016 Dr. John Barker Environmental and Evolutionary Psychology Transcript Introduction The environmental and evolutionary psychology field is the study of how a person’s environment can affect their psychological process. The environmental field helps identify if there is a connection involving the environment of a person and what impact it can have on a person’s life. The evolutionary psychology part of the field does research on a person’s memory, perspectives, and language through the theory of adaptation. Evolutionary theory will focus on the properties of an organism and how the organism functions and it will include information on how the brain functions. Some people will react to certain situations in one manner and someone else in another. It depends on the person and the situation that they are faced with as well as the environment that they were raised in. People will tend to adapt in their environment because of necessity to survive and to become comfortable within their environment. Theorists that study evolution may view a person’s psychological traits to be progressed adaptations. The field of environmental and evolutionary psychology can help a person in understanding how external factors may affect their lives. Some people do not see the outdoors as being therapeutic, but there are a lot of factors of being in nature that can help a person. Spending time outdoors and with animals......

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Environmental Psychology

...The Effects of Population Density and Noise Toni Kubitscheck University of Phoenix Environmental Psychology PSY/460 Cheryl Sanders December 07, 2011 The Effects of Population Density and Noise WHAT??? Speak up, there are so many people in here and it is so loud… In analyzing the effects that nose and population density have on the human race, it is not uncommon for people to be affected in many different and negative ways. However, there are a vast number of negative factors that affect individuals in either their work or home environments such as: noise, population changes, territoriality issues, privacy, and personal space issues just to name a few, there can be just as many positive impacts as well. As population becomes denser or increases it is only natural that noise pollution is going to increase too, and along with the increase in population and noise, concepts of trust, privacy and personal space issues increase. The effects of these issues become increasingly negative. However, there are factors within personal environments that increase positive impacts upon individuals, for instance in every city, county and state there are parks, nature trails, zoos, and other wonderful environments within bigger environments that people can utilize to counter balance the negative impacts. Concepts of territoriality, privacy, and personal space are all cognitive processes that portray ownership including; places, possessions, and even people. Therefore, with the......

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What Is Environmental Psychology

...What Is Environmental Psychology Environmental psychology is a discipline or field of psychology dealing with conservation and health psychologies. There are many theoretical approaches to environmental psychology. Several of these theories also tie into individual psychology as well. Two of the theories that connect both these psychologies are the alderian theory and Barker’s theory of under population. Research is very important to both the theories and environmental psychology as a field. Research and the lack of visible results was one of the reasons this field was born from the conservationist field of psychology. Environmental Psychology Environmental psychology examines the interrelationship between environments and human behavior and in this field the term environment is defined very broadly to include all that is natural on the planet as well as social settings, built environments, learning environments and informational environments (Young, 1999). From the beginning, environmental psychology has included researchers concerned with the health of the environment, and a great deal of research relevant to conservation psychology has been done by environmental psychologists (Clayton & Myers, 2009). Environmental psychologies roots come from late 1960s studies and research of other fields, although its exact origin is somewhat unknown (Clayton & Myers, 2009). There are many theories about this particular field of study – environmental......

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Environmental Psychology Article Analysis

...Environmental Psychology Article Analysis PSY/460 March 26, 2012 Environmental Psychology Article Analysis Catastrophic events are incidents that have a sudden and powerful impact that elicit a reaction from people universally (Arkkelin & Veitch, 1995). These kinds of incidents can include nuclear disasters, natural disasters, or terrorist attacks like the attacks that took place on September 11, 2001 (9/11). The examinations of the psychological phenomena that occur from these events are crucial for the understanding of how people experience, respond, and perceive global threats (Hipp et al, 2009). Specifically, the attacks on 9/11 were actions of terrorist and exposed the weaknesses of the nation, and specifically Washington DC. The article that will be scrutinized by Bornstein & Hendricks (2007) attempts to analyze the stress responses of adolescents in the Washington D.C. area within an ecological structure including, adolescent perception, maternal personal characteristics, and adolescent personal characteristics. The Theoretical Basis of the Article Bornstein & Hendricks (2007) use, “…a developmental, multivariate approach that allows for the evaluation of interrelations among variables as well as the unique contributions of each…” (p. 72). The extent of this study is distinctive because few studies have investigated the effects of disasters and war on adolescents from an ecological viewpoint. The article reflects upon the......

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Environmental Psychology Analysis

...Environmental Psychology Analysis Dan McKinney PSY/460 May 07, 2012 Aixa College University of Phoenix Environmental Psychology Analysis The article that is discussed in this report is the reduction of posttraumatic stress disorder following natural disasters. There is a lot of stress, fear, and behavior issues that following a traumatic event like a natural disasters. Most adults have difficulty coping with fear or stress while experiencing a natural disaster but it is especially challenging for children because of the lack of developmental stages of coping with stress and natural disasters. After such disasters children can show signs of distress and emotional disturbance, so acquiring parents, guardians, and teachers provide emotional support is essential for aiding in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder. In me cases children need professional help, therefore educating parents and loved ones to facilitate adaptive coping strategies and interventions is the first step with posttraumatic stress disorder. One must understand the signs after such a traumatic event like a natural disaster in which case executing the proper proven interventions that incorporate play with aid in developing coping skills for children who have PTSD. Many different therapies like Cognitive Behavior Therapy Family Play Therapy are usually the best fit for PTSD. Smith (2011),......

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Environmental Psychology

...Environmental Psychology PSY 460 Environmental Psychology Many individuals are familiar with Counseling Psychology, and many think psychology only deals with mental problems. However, the field of psychology has various disciplines that apply to every aspect of human life. One of those disciplines is Environmental Psychology. Individual’s interactions with his or her man-made or natural environment can have an impact on psychological health and behavior. Environmental psychologists research how people interact within his or her everyday environment. There are several theoretical approaches to the discipline of environmental psychology, which will be discussed further. The important contributions of environmental psychology come from research, and the relevance of research in the field is imperative to understanding the discipline as a whole. What is Environmental Psychology? The field of environmental psychology can best be condensed into an interdisciplinary psychological science that is concerned with the interactions of humans and his or her surrounding environment. Environmental psychologists research both the details and the overall effects of environment on human emotion and behavior (Fisher, 2007). The discipline of environmental psychology involves everything from architecture design to ecological impact. Many environmental psychologists will seek help from other scientific disciplines to aid in his or her research and work within the field of study. The overall......

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Environmental Psychology

...Environmental Psychology The study of psychology is complex, unique, diverse, and ever-changing. Psychology is defined as “the scientific investigation of mental processes and behavior” (Kowalski & Weston, 2009, p. 4). One of the many disciplines in the dynamic field of psychology is environmental psychology. As with all disciplines of psychology, environmental psychology has a variety of theoretical perspectives. Two such perspectives are evolutionary and behavioral. The following is an introduction to environmental psychology, a description of evolutionary and behavioral perspectives and their application in environmental psychology, as well as an examination of the importance of research in environmental psychology. Environmental psychology is a psychological discipline that examines the relationship between human behavior and the environment. Historically, environmental psychology developed into a discipline in the 1960s, with intent to understand the impact of physical environment on human behavior (Environmental Psychology, 2004). Alfred Adler was one of many theorists who had an elemental role in the developing discipline. Adler observed that an individual’s interpretation of the interaction of organismic and environmental variables significantly affected the personality (Stewart, 2007). His observations had an influential role in the emergence of environmental psychology. Present-day environmental psychology has expanded beyond personality development. Modern......

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Environmental Psychology

...Environmental Psychology Paper Robyn A. Cole August 13, 2012 PSY 460 Edward A. Muhammad, M.S. Environmental Psychology For more than the past ten years, the field of psychology has covered drawn out analysis and delved into the correlation among human beings and the environment. Clayton and Myers state that, “Recent quantitative assessments of the human impact on nature give a sobering picture: the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment found that about 60% of the earth’s ecosystem services are being used unsustainably” (2009, p. 1). This study has implies that ecological changes affect the revolutionalization in human behavior. The force of continuing environmental changes persistently influence human behavior and the progression of human thinking. Each day instances of climate changes will allow for increasing consciousness of the requirement to recycle, reusable plastic bags, and empty bottles, reduction of the garbage that is deserted in the waste dumping sites every year. Case in point, this motivates a knowledgeable community which stimulates inventive ideas and studies. Consequentially, this encourages people and community to feel good and inspires others to improve, recycle, and salvage better. In this paper we will define the discipline of environmental psychology, compare and contrast two major theoretical approaches, and explain the importance of research in the field of environmental psychology. The field of environmental psychology started in...

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Linda Steg | Jan Willem Bolderdijk | Kees Keizer | Goda Perlaviciute

Many environmental behaviours involve a conflict between hedonic and gain goals versus normative goals; people often need to incur some costs to benefit the environment. Based on this assumption, we propose an integrated theoretical framework for understanding behaviour change that identifies two routes to encourage pro-environmental behaviour. First, the conflict between goals can be reduced by decreasing the (hedonic and gain) costs of pro-environmental choices. Although this route is important when pro-environmental choices are very costly, it may not result in sustained pro-environmental actions. Second, normative goals can be strengthened. This strategy may encourage pro-environmental actions, even when it is somewhat costly. We propose that the strength of normative goals depends on values and situational factors that influence the accessibility of these values. We discuss theoretical implications of our reasoning, and indicate how the integrated framework adopted in this paper may advance theory development and environmental policy making. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Liisa Tyrväinen | Ann Ojala | Kalevi Korpela | Timo Lanki | Yuko Tsunetsugu | Takahide Kagawa

This study investigated the psychological (perceived restorativeness, subjective vitality, mood, creativity) and physiological (salivary cortisol concentration) effects of short-term visits to urban nature environments. Seventy-seven participants visited three different types of urban areas; a built-up city centre (as a control environment), an urban park, and urban woodland located in Helsinki, the capital of Finland. Our results show that the large urban park and extensively managed urban woodland had almost the same positive influence, but the overall perceived restorativeness was higher in the woodland after the experiment. The findings suggest that even short-term visits to nature areas have positive effects on perceived stress relief compared to built-up environment. The salivary cortisol level decreased in a similar fashion in all three urban environments during the experiment. The relations between psychological measures and physiological measures, as well as the influence of nature exposure on different groups of people, need to be studied further. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Martin Greaves | Lara D. Zibarras | Chris Stride

This paper presents a study using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore environmental behavioral intentions in a workplace setting. The first stage of the research process was the development of a questionnaire covering TPB constructs, their antecedent beliefs, and environmental behavioral intentions across three scenarios (switching off PCs every time employees left their desks for an hour or more; using video-conferencing for meetings that would otherwise require travel; and recycling as much waste as possible), using best practice guidelines to ensure that it was specific and precisely defined for the target population. This was then administered to N = 449 participants, with the resulting dataset used to test hypotheses relating antecedent beliefs to behavioral intentions via the potentially mediating effect of TPB constructs. TPB constructs were found to explain between 46% and 61% of the variance in employee intentions to engage in three environmental behaviors, and to mediate the effects of specific antecedent beliefs upon employee intentions to engage in these behaviors. The results form a basis upon which interventions could be developed within the host organization, and are discussed in relation to their implications, in terms of theory, practice and future research. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Jungsoo Kim | Richard de Dear

Open-plan office layout is commonly assumed to facilitate communication and interaction between co-workers, promoting workplace satisfaction and team-work effectiveness. On the other hand, open-plan layouts are widely acknowledged to be more disruptive due to uncontrollable noise and loss of privacy. Based on the occupant survey database from Center for the Built Environment (CBE), empirical analyses indicated that occupants assessed Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) issues in different ways depending on the spatial configuration (classified by the degree of enclosure) of their workspace. Enclosed private offices clearly outperformed open-plan layouts in most aspects of IEQ, particularly in acoustics, privacy and the proxemics issues. Benefits of enhanced 'ease of interaction' were smaller than the penalties of increased noise level and decreased privacy resulting from open-plan office configuration. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Mathew P. White | Sabine Pahl | Katherine Ashbullby | Stephen Herbert | Michael H. Depledge

Exposure to natural environments can help restore depleted emotional and cognitive resources. However, investigation of the relative impacts of different natural environments among large samples is limited. Using data from 4255 respondents drawn from Natural England's Monitoring Engagement with the Natural Environment survey (2009-2011), we investigated feelings of restoration (calm, relaxed, revitalized and refreshed) recalled by individuals after visits to different natural environments within the last week. Controlling for demographic and visit characteristics we found that of the broad environmental categories, coastal visits were associated with the most restoration and town and urban parks with the least. In terms of specific environmental types two "green space" locations (woodlands/forests and hills/moorland/mountains) were associated with levels of restoration comparable to coastal locations. Urban playing fields were associated with the least restoration. Restoration was positively associated with visit duration (a potential dose-response effect), and visits with c hildren were associated with less restoration than visits alone. There was little evidence that different activities (e.g. walking, exercising) were associated with differences in restoration. The data may improve our understanding of the "cultural eco-system services" provided by different natural environments and help decision makers keen to invest scare resources in those environments most associated with psychological benefits. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Ellen Van der Werff | Linda Steg | Kees Keizer

Biospheric values and environmental self-identities are considered to be important antecedents of environmental preferences, intentions, and behaviour. Although various authors suggest a relationship between values and self-identity, this has rarely been studied empirically. This paper aimed to clarify the relationship between biospheric values and environmental self-identity and to study how both are related to environmental preferences, intentions, and behaviour. We hypothesized that biospheric values are related to environmental self-identity, and that self-identity is in turn related to preferences, intentions, and behaviour. Results of three studies including a wide range of environmental preferences, intentions, and behaviour support our reasoning and show that biospheric values are related to environmental self-identity, even when measured months before. Moreover, we found that the relationship between biospheric values and environmental preferences, intentions and behaviour was fully mediated by environmental self-identity, indicating that biospheric values are related to preferences, intentions, and behaviour via one's environmental self-identity. This suggests that values need to be linked to the self in order to be influential in choices made. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Kim Pong Tam

In recent years, environmental psychologists have shown interest in the notion of connection to nature, and considered it to have an important role in helping mitigate the environmental crisis. Together they have developed a number of concepts and measures related to this notion. However, the convergence or divergence of these concepts and measures has rarely been examined. The present research thus aims to empirically examine their similarities and differences. Using one undergraduate Hong Kong Chinese sample (N = 322) and one diverse American sample (N = 185), it demonstrates that these measures can be considered as markers of a common construct: They were strongly inter-correlated, converged to a single factor, shared highly similar correlations with various criterion variables, and did not show much unique predictive power when their common factor was controlled for. Nevertheless, there is also evidence of divergence: Some measures had stronger correlations with the criterion variables than did others, and had unique, though small, incremental predictive power. These findings bear important implications for the theoretical understanding of connection to nature. On the one hand, recognizing the commonalities among the various concepts and measures allows one to integrate existing research findings. On the other hand, identifying the distinctiveness of some concepts and measures reveals that certain ways of conceptualizing connection to nature (e.g., a multidimensional framework) are promising. Directions for future research are suggested accordingly. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Christine Kormos | Robert Gifford

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Do self-reports match objective behavior? We performed a meta-analysis to quantify the association between self-reported and objective measures of proenvironmental behavior, and to evaluate the moderating influence of two socio-demographic and seven methodological moderators. Data from 6260 individuals or households, involving 19 measures of association in 15 studies, revealed a positive and nominally large (Cohen, 1988) effect size (r = 46). However, this means that 79% of the variance in the association between self-reported and objective behavior remains unexplained, which is especially troubling given the environmental context. We conclude that although this effect size is conventionally large, it is functionally small for testing theory and devising intervention campaigns, possibly leading researchers to draw misleading conclusions about the usefulness of theories that employ self-reports to predict objective behavior. These findings highlight a crucial need for research that strengthens the validity of self-reports for well-defined types of environmental behavior.

Sander van der Linden

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. This study advances a detailed social-psychological model of climate change risk perceptions by combining and integrating cognitive, experiential, and socio-cultural factors. The conceptual model is tested empirically on a national sample (. N=808) of the UK population. Results indicate that the full climate change risk perception model (CCRPM) is able to explain nearly 70% of the variance in risk perception. Gender, political party, knowledge of the causes, impacts and responses to climate change, social norms, value orientations, affect and personal experience with extreme weather were all identified as significant predictors. Experiential and socio-cultural factors explained significantly more variance in risk perception than either cognitive or socio-demographic characteristics. Results also confirm that the factor analytic structure of climate change risk perceptions can be conceptualized along two key dimensions, namely: personal and societal risk judgments and that both dimensions have different psychological antecedents. Implications for theory and public risk communication are discussed.

Sebastian Bamberg

This article takes the model of action phases (MAP, Heckhausen & Gollwitzer, 1987) as a theoretical basis for conceptualizing behavioral change as a transition through a time-ordered sequence of four qualitatively different stages: predecisional, preactional, actional, and postactional. The constructs of goal intention, behavioral intention, and implementation intention provide the criteria for when an individual transits from one stage to the next. However, because MAP does not describe in detail psychological factors contributing to stage progression, constructs taken from the norm-activation model (Schwartz & Howard, 1981) and the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991) are integrated. Results of a first correlational study (N = 908) identified four homogeneous stage subgroups. As expected, the probability of stage assignment was associated significantly with the three intention types marking the transition from one stage to the next. The proposed sets of stage-specific social-cognitive variables were powerful predictors of these three intention types. Potential implications of the model for systematic intervention development are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lucy Chan | Brian Bishop

With evidence suggesting conservation attitudes and moral norms lack discriminant validity, the study's aim was to test if this could be established for recycling, as well as how moral norms can extend the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). A sample of 271 participants that consisted predominantly of students was obtained for this correlational study (117 males and 154 females, M age=24 years). Since confirmatory factor analysis indicated convergent validity (r=.69, p < .05), path analysis was conducted on a model that replaced attitudes with moral norms in the TPB. This model was found to fit the data well, with 39% and 41% of the variance in recycling intention and behaviour explained respectively. Overall, results supported the utility of appealing to moral norms as it was associated with a higher recycling intention (β=.33, 95% CI [.23, .43]), and ultimately, actual recycling. © 2013.

Eleanor Ratcliffe | Birgitta Gatersleben | Paul T. Sowden

Natural environments, and particularly visual stimuli in nature, are usually perceived as restorative following stress and attention fatigue. Studies extending these findings to auditory natural stimuli have used soundscapes comprising multiple types of sound. Birdsong recurs as a type of sound used in such studies, but little is known about restorative perceptions of bird sounds on their own and how these may relate to existing theories of environmental restoration. Via semi-structured interviews with twenty adult participants, bird songs and calls were found to be the type of natural sound most commonly associated with perceived stress recovery and attention restoration. However, not all bird sounds were regarded as helpful for such processes. Three themes formed the basis of these perceived relationships: affective appraisals, cognitive appraisals, and relationships with nature. Sub-themes of the acoustic, aesthetic, and associative properties of bird sounds were also related to restorative perceptions. Future studies should quantitatively examine the potential of a variety of bird sounds to aid attention restoration and stress recovery, and how these might be predicted by acoustic, aesthetic, and associative properties, in order to better understand how and why sounds such as birdsong might provide restorative benefits. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Megan Hurst | Helga Dittmar | Rod Bond | Tim Kasser

A growing body of evidence suggests that materialistic values may be negatively associated with pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. This research used meta-analytic techniques to assess: the mean effect size of the correlation between materialistic values and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors; the 'true effect size' adjusting for the reliability of the measures; and the effects of gender, age, population type and publication year on the size of the correlation. A significant, medium-sized association was found between materialistic values and both environmental attitudes and behaviors; these relationships were moderated by population type and publication year, but not by gender or age. Adjusted for reliability, the effects increased considerably, largely due to the low reliability of both types of environmental measures. The implications for future research are discussed, particularly with regard to the importance of using more reliable environmental measures and collecting data from more cultures. Practical applications are also highlighted, particularly as they might apply to environmental campaigns. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Catharine Ward Thompson

This paper reviews research into the relationships between attributes of outdoor environments and levels of activity and exercise in populations using those environments. It takes an environmental designer's view of relevant and effective research and research approaches that can provide evidence for policy and practice. The paper has a tripartite structure, examining theories, research methods, and findings that contribute to understanding links between physical activity and the planning and design of outdoor spaces. It considers concepts, methods and evidence relevant to adults', older adults' and children's activities and identifies those that appear to offer greatest potential for future research. It also identifies gaps in our understanding, the need for well-conceptualized models of environment-behaviour interactions to elucidate these, and the importance of collecting and presenting evidence in ways that are sympathetic to design practice. If evidence is to lead to effective and salutogenic changes in our physical environment, then findings that translate readily into a design framework will be most beneficial. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Astrid de Leeuw | Pierre Valois | Icek Ajzen | Peter Schmidt

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. This study relied on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to identify the beliefs that influence young people's pro-environmental behavior. High-school students completed a questionnaire regarding the performance of pro-environmental behaviors early in the school year and reported on their behavior toward the end of the year. In addition to the standard TPB constructs, the initial questionnaire assessed descriptive norms, moral norms, sex, and empathic concern. Results revealed an excellent fit for the standard TPB model; attitudes, descriptive subjective norms, and perceptions of control made independent contributions to the prediction of intentions, and intentions together with perceived control predicted behavior. Behavioral, normative, and control beliefs predicted, respectively, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Empathic concern influenced intentions and behavior indirectly by its effects on behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. Examination of the effects of specific beliefs revealed important implications for designing effective behavior-change interventions.

Silvia Collado | Henk Staats | José A. Corraliza

The present study evaluates how a stay in a summer holiday camp changes children's willingness to display ecological behaviour and the affective and cognitive factors that may be responsible for this change. The study included two types of nature camps, one with an Environmental Education (EE) program and one without it, with an urban camp without EE as an additional control group. Nature experiences increased children's emotional affinity towards nature, their ecological beliefs, and willingness to display ecological behaviour. No differences were found between the nature camps with and without EE. Emotional affinity towards nature and ecological beliefs independently mediated the direct effect that exposure to nature has on children's ecological behaviours, the strength of each mediator differing according to the type of ecological behaviour. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kate E. Lee | Kathryn J.H. Williams | Leisa D. Sargent | Nicholas S.G. Williams | Katherine A. Johnson

© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Based on attention restoration theory we proposed that micro-breaks spent viewing a city scene with a flowering meadow green roof would boost sustained attention. Sustained attention is crucial in daily life and underlies successful cognitive functioning. We compared the effects of 40-s views of two different city scenes on 150 university students' sustained attention. Participants completed the task at baseline, were randomly assigned to view a flowering meadow green roof or a bare concrete roof, and completed the task again at post-treatment. Participants who briefly viewed the green roof made significantly lower omission errors, and showed more consistent responding to the task compared to participants who viewed the concrete roof. We argue that this reflects boosts to sub-cortical arousal and cortical attention control. Our results extend attention restoration theory by providing direct experimental evidence for the benefits of micro-breaks and for city green roofs.

Charis E. Anton | Carmen Lawrence

© 2014 The Authors. This study explores the relationships between place of residence, living in a threatened place and the subsets of place attachment: place identity and place dependence. Six hundred participants living in south-west Western Australia in rural and urban areas with varying degrees of bushfire risk responded to surveys asking about their reasons for living in their local area, their place attachment and their socio-demographic details. MANOVAs revealed a significant effect of place of residence on place identity with rural residents reporting higher place identity than urban dwellers. Urban dwellers reported lower place dependence than rural dwellers except when they lived in a fire prone area, in which case their place dependence was on par with that of rural residents. Socio-demographic predictors of both place identity and place dependence to the home and local area were also explored, these included length of residence, education, and owning one's home.

Joop De Boer | Hanna Schösler | Jan J. Boersema

This paper addresses the relationship between meat eating and climate change focusing on motivational explanations of environmentally-relevant consumer behavior. Based on a sample of 1083 Dutch consumers, it examines their responses to the idea that they can make a big difference to nature and climate protection by choosing one or more meals without meat every week. This idea can be seen as a new opportunity to help mitigation, but also as a counterproductive message that might trigger negative responses among consumers who are skeptical about climate change. As hypothesized, the meat-free meal idea was received more positively by consumers who valued care for nature and more negatively by those who did not value it. Also as hypothesized, the meat-free meal idea was received more negatively by consumers who were skeptical about the seriousness of climate change. The idea was not received more positively by those who did take it seriously. The results support the notion that the meat-free meal idea may serve as a counterproductive message. From the perspective of motivation, it is preferable not to isolate the meat-climate issue but to develop an approach that combines multiple values regarding food choices, including health and nature-related values. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.