GEOGRAPHY FINAL EXAM: 10 MAIN TERMS TO KNOW FOR SHORT ANSWER: GEOGRAPHY: the study of patterns and processes on the earth’s surface derived from geo meaning earth, graphe meaning to write about WHAT IS WHERE, WHY THERE & WHY CARE? What is where? Description ex. Cities, factories, neighbours Why there? Explanation ex. Globalization, capitalism, spatial agglomerate Why Care? Interpretation ex. Social inequality, economic development, peace or conflict –what is the meaning or significance GIS: One of three megatechnologies for the 21st century which allows users to view maps that were previously impossible WHAT IS GIS: mapping and reporting, internet (data access, citizen portals), logistics navigation, visualization, mobile field workers, analysis, data center, data creation HOW WORK: linking data to place FACTS: GIS is not new (>45 years of R&D) however it is constantly evolving -today it is a multibillion dollar business used in many sectors of our economy -there is not a mainstream industry not using geotech or geoserv. -‘Geoservices’ encompasses all interactive digital mapping and location-based services (check into this) BENEFITS of linking data to place using Code Red: >enhances communication >improve access to information >support decision making >empowered people to take action DISTANCE DECAY: How the level of interaction declines as distance increases Decline of activity or function with increasing distance >distance >friction Is connected to spatial interaction and the first law of geography “everything is related to everything else but near things are more related than distant things” Under the influence of distance. Gravity models can measure this ex. distance decay function (boundary between North and South Korea has distance short but theres no accessibility and theres no connection therefore low level of interaction) INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: late 1700s & 1800s A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods Critical changes to ‘way of life’ –locations:diffusion Essential Components: o Large-scale factory production o Highly capitalized mechanization o Agglomeration of industries (near sources of energy) o Rural to urban migration 2 current issues: 1. The Post-industrial world: -declining industrial activity -transition from industrial to services -transition is uneven and abrupt ex. Job losses and under-employment…Detroit, Buffalo, & Hamilton…..Toronto, New York 2. The Newly Industrialized (Industrializing) World -south korea, mexico, brazil, china, etc. tradition (an changing) geography of industrial production/manufacturing tradition: North America, Europe & Japan newly emerging: East Asia, South and southeast Asia, Latin America Agricultural productivity Mass production Trade Demographic change Massive rural to urban migration Level of Urbanization: Increased rapidly emergence of first truly large cities & their associated problems -need factories and need people to invent chemical fertilizers -dem. Change birth and death rates ex. ** FOOD SUPPLY EXPODED = TONS OF FOOD increased crude birth rate, rapid declining crude death rate, very high natural increase rapid o developed countries 20 years ago b/c of industrial revolution which generated wealth & technology o o o o o MEGACITY: >10 million Levels of urbanization are higher in the MDW, but majority of VERY LARGE CITIES are in the LDW less developed world o ex, Tokyo Japan is the worlds largest megacity. Convergence of two or more metropolitans. Have risen due to mass migration from countryside growth: similar process to urbanization more generally: Economic Attraction (perception or reality of greater opportunity) o Expanding Population 1. rural-urban migration 2. natural increase (fertility rates) eg. Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta (India), Dhaka (Bangladash), Karachi (Pakistan), Jakarta (Indonesia), Lagos (Nigeria), Cairo (Egypt), Sao Paulo (Brazil), Mexico City, etc. DEVELOPMENT: a process of improvement in the material conditions of life -there’s a scale of development where your going to become more developed or the level of development could drop Implied: the moderinization leads to advancement which means your economy needs to be growing and the requires more producing and more consuming. Spatial variation in terms of well-being -the ‘haves’ and ‘have nots’ these variations exist at numerous spatial scales (global, regional, national, local) levels of development: a continuum -third world (bottom) vs first (capitalist) & second (socialist, communism) -south vs. north -underdeveloped vs. developed -developing vs. developed -less developed vs. more developed ex. World Systems Theory: an explanatory framework (categorization) Core: (haves) Canada, US, Japan, New Zealand Periphery: (have nots) Africa, Northern part of South America, Central Semi-Periphery: -not only economic development but can think about cognitive developmentprocesses that children go through (developing; improvement-social skills) AGRI&TNC related AGRI-BUSINESS: ex. Of commercial agriculture Pressures to increase productivity via investment in technology rise of agribusinesses (recall TNC’s) o Loss of family farms- replaced with larger agribusinesses Land and the environment, coupled with agricultural specialization has created distinct ‘geographies of agriculture’ Agriculture: -a system of interacting components that work together as a unit -a food-producing system includes -land (and climate) -a series of inputs (i.e. labour, fertilizers and machinery) -ouputs (i.e. the products and commodities) -consumers Commericial (modern) Agriculture o Utilizes high technological inputs (fertilizers, antibiotics, steroids) o Operations are large scale o Food for regional and/or global trade Typical forms: o Family farms o Agribusinesses o Plantations found in more developed world but not entirely Important Factors: Physical(climate, flat or mountainous), Cultural(some people don’t eat specific animas), Political, Economic TNC’S: (Trans-National Corporations) Headquarters in one country and subsidiaries, factories, etc. in others ex. Nike [size & power] revenue -the size and influence of TNCs has become possible via: 1. Differential in wages (Clothing manufactures – if you make people make t shirt where you pay them a lot compared to Indonesia and then shipping is way less expensive) 2. Differential environmental regulations (can’t pollute river & air in some countries) 3. Low cost of global transportation (via container shipping) 4. The reduction of trade barriers -Services sector as well…consider call centres where can I figure out where you don’t have to pay them very much PRIMATE CITY: The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement Primate City Distribution: Urban systems which are dominated by a city that is significantly larger than all other cities, and that dominates the economic, political, and social life of the country -more than twice the size of the next largest ex. Mexico: Mexico city (primate city) 19.5 vs. Guadalajara (2nd largest) 4.4 M Primate cities are most commonly found in: Small countries with a relatively short history of urbanization & with relatively ‘less developed’ economics o ex. Mexico follows the primate city distribution. Its largest city Mexico city is five times larger than its second largest city. The United States follows more closely the rank size because the largest city New York is not that much larger than the second largest city, Los Angeles o other examples of P.C. : Mexico, Argentina, Peru Indonesia, South Korea, Philippines, Thailand, Bangladesh Kenya, Egypt, Nigeria (many of these cities are the capitals of former EUROPEAN colonies also found in some ‘more developed’ countries o ex. United Kingdom (London vs. Birmingman) , France (Paris vs. Lyon), Japan (Tokyo vs. Osaka) TOTAL FERTILITY RATE: The average number of children a woman will have in her reproductive years [15-49] harder to derive – Global TFR = 2.8; replacement rates = e.2.1-2.5 o Target of in order to replace themselves for population to not go up or down (not all women can have children, not all children will live through reproductive period) o Many factors influence rates of fertilition (Africa has highest) MAPPING: Scale: a map scale model of all or a portion of Earth –flat depiction of nearly round earth Geographers of mapmaking: cartography To make a map, 2 things are important: o How much of the earth’s surface to depict on the map (map scale) o How to transfer a spherical Earth to a flat map (projection) Map scale: relationship of a feature’s size on a map to its actual size on earth. o A ratio or fraction, a written scale, a graphic scale A ratio or fraction: show numerical distance b/t distances on the map and earth’s surface Ex. 1:10 000 000 meaning tha one unit (inch, centimeter, foot) on the map represents 10 000 000 of the same unit on the ground. The number on the left always refers to a unit distance on the map and the number on the right always refers to the same unit distance on Earth’s surface. THE SMALLER THE NUMBER ON RIGHT GETS, the closer you are zoomed in 1 cm on map equals 10 kms on earth, 1:1,000,000 Zooms in as 1 cm on map equals 1 km on earth, 1:100,000 move downn 1 cm on map equals 100 metres on earth, 1:10, 000 A map is a scale model of the real world A reference tool- a map helps us find shortest distance A communications tool- depicting the distribution of human activities or physical features AFTER MIDTERM: LECTURE 9: Population Geography Demography: the study of population Population geography: the study of spatial expressions of population -where do they live, work? -spatial distribution of pop. -how do they live Global Population Growth: What is the current (approx.) global pop.? 7.11 Billion (OCTOBER) What was the global pop. In 1995? 5.69 Billion Pop. Goes up 220,000 people per day Largest (by pop) country: china (1.35 B), India (1.21 B), U.S. (0.31 B) Ca. (35 M) Our global population growth has been growing relatively fast in the past years since 1975. -would increase by a billion every 127 yrs., 33 yrs. in 1927 and 1960 respectively -1975= 4 B (15 yrs.) 1987= 5 B (12 yrs.) 1999= 6 B (12 yrs.) 2012= 7B (13) - 2050 (projected) = ~9 billion Population growth rate: ~1.2% per year >doubling time: 54 years Beyond simple growth, the key issues are: 1. Differential (unequal) pop. Growth? Ex. 10% of births in more developed world, 90% in less developed 2. What are the consequences of this growth? Provision of health-care and social services Provision of food Resource scarcity (water, oil, etc.) Potential for conflict Distribution: geographic phenomena can often be explained with reference to the distance between them and their spatial organization 3 forms of distribution Uneven: clustered vs. dispersed: o Factors: physical geographic & human geographic -‘haves and have nots’ wrt economic and social development -this correlates with levels of population Most populous countries tend not to be part of the global ‘core’ -what are the consequences of this? o a large number of people who live in poverty and with poor access to health-care, education, housing the most populous has lower level of economic and social development ex. Rank from 1-4 (most populous to least): China, India, US, Indonesia (semi, semi, core, periphery) (3,4,1,4) US & Japan (core): level 1 for social development India (semi) Indonesia (periphery), Bangladash (periphery) : level 3&4 Conclusion: core, periphery (economic development) have low, high (social development) respectively Population Density: the number of people occupying an area of land Europe, east asia (China, Japan, Korea) – more people per square km [more dense] Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Vietnam, Phillipeans) – less [less dense] Measures of Population Density: Arithmetic (crude): #of people per unit area of land Physiological: # of people per unit area of arable land (land that can be farmed on) Ex. Canada 3 arith. 65 phys., Bangladesh 1,002 arith. 1,577 phys. Limits to Growth: Limits to pop. Growth, & pop. Density & capacity of earth to support our pop. Overpopulation: when the # of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living Carrying Capacity: max # of people that an area can support on a sustained bias given the set of natural resources and prevailing technology >Have we reached out C.C.? Catastrophists -we are overpopulated and are pushing beyond the earth’s C.C. Cornucopians –technology will allow us to recap benefits from resources not yet discovered, and will extend our use of the planet indefinitely LECTURE 10: Population Dynamics: GLOBALLY: Two factors: Fertility (births) & Mortality (deaths) PI = Po + (B-D) REGIONALLY: population influenced by movement: Migration (immigration and emigration) PI = Po + (B-D) + (I-E) FERTILITY MEASURES: 1. Crude birth rate (CBR): CBR = (B/P) x 1000 -total # of live births / yr for every 1000 ppl already living True fertility: a) a # of women in the population and b) the # of women of child-bearing age (i.e. 15-49) [crude not accurate for true] 2. General fertility rate (or fecundity) (GFR): GFR = (B/Pf-15-49) x 1000 3. Total Fertility Rate (TFR): average # of children a woman will have in her fertile years (15-49) (harder to derive) Global TFR = 2.8 Replacement Rates = 2.2.1-2.5 (reflets differences b/t diff parts of the world Canada 2.1, sub-africa 2.5) Target of in order to replace themselves for population to not go up or down (not all women ccan have children, not all children will live through reproductive period) Many factors influence rates of fertility MORTALITY MEASURES: 1. Crude death rate (CDR): CDR = (D/P) x 1000 -total # of deathes per year for every 1000 people -CDR does not account for the age of the population -differs because its not taking account of population structure Ex. Afghanistan- epicenter of the HIV/AIDS pandemic 2. Infant mortality rate (an age adjusted rate) (IMR): IMR – (D0-1/B) x 1000 Range: less than 10 to more than 150 Ex. Infants are very susceptible and can die very easily because they are sensitive to the kind of environment they are brought up in 3. Life expectancy: the average # of years of life Range: from the low 40s to more than 80 POPULATION NATURAL INCREASE: Patterns Combining HIGH fertility with DECREASING mortality means some areas have a high natural increase Conversely, LOW fertility and LOW mortality means some areas are low-growth areas, and some decline -mali, chad, congo- lots of ppl emigrating out Ex. 97% of NI clustered in developing countries: Sub-Saharan Africa, Southwest Asia, North Africa ** 1/3 South Asia POPULATION GROWTH THEORY: Rapid population growth: ~6 Billion in 200 years Several theories to understand this increase: o Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) [principle of pop.] 1. Food Supply 2. Population POPULATION IS GOING TO BE MORE THAN FOOD!! (ex. INDIA) 1. Food > Population 2. Food = Population 3. Food < Population A. Preventative “checks” on population: a. Reduce fertility growth b. lower death rate B. Positive checks on population: a. People are going to kill eachother and be competitive for food Was Malthus correct? He neglected to consider - Agricultural productivity - Contraception & fertility DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION: (4 Stages) [effect on total pop.] 1. high BR; high DR: increases/decreases slowly NIR very low (war, disease) 2. high BR; declining DR: increases more rapidly NIR very high (industrial revolution) Ex. Triangle shaped pyramid 3. declining BR; declining DR: increases @ slower rate NIR moderate (government policies on large families) Ex. Cone shaped pyramid 4. low BR low DR: relatively stable NIR 0 or –ve (developed birth control) Ex. Rectangle (stable) shaped pyramid Conclusion: To what extent does this DT model fit with experiences in the developed and developing world? Ex. Can we say that those in the less developed will go to stage 3? MAKING CONNECTIONS: - we can draw connections b/t these theories and our understanding of pop. Dynamics by examining a populations “structure” Population pyramid: a diagrammatic representation of the age and sex structure of a pop. Youngest: base Oldest: top Pre reproductive-post reproductive (bottom to top) Length represents the % of total pop. Contained in that group o Males left, women right o Age structure is determined by the relative birth&death rates of a population (CBR- country high, large # of children, broad base. Country older – wider top –rectangle) Ex. Expanding: triangle (little top) HIGH GROWTH Stable: cone MODERATE GROWTH –each Diminishing: balloon (bigger top) LOW GROWTH LECTURE 11: Population Migration: Population Migration: the spatial movement of population from one place to another Immigration – movement INTO a country Emigration – movement OUT of a country Different spatial contexts: international (global) intra-regional (national/regional) inter-urban (within city) not important Key issues: Cultural, political & economic characteristics- Who are they? Number of migrants (flow)- How many are there? Distance moved- How far have they travelled? Political boundaries crossed- provincial vs. national? Causes of migration- what factors influence decision Time spent in new location- permanent, transient Migration: a form of pop. Redistribution OVER-POP. to UNDER-POP. ex. o North America Europe, East-Asia o North America Latin America People are coming from these places to Canada Population in the core countries are stable or declining **many “core” countries depend on immigration to sustain population & economic growth Net Migration: Immigration – Emigration (I-E) Destination countries: core countries -low natural pop. Growth, high economic & social development ex. North America, Australia, Japan, Europe, Afghanistan Source countries: periphery -high natural pop. Growth, low economic & social development ex. Latin America, Africa (mix) REFUGEES- coming from neighbouring countries for safe haven status or better environment. Asia, Eastern Europe WHY MIGRATE? Push-Pull Theory Ravenstein ‘Laws’ PUSH-PULL FACTORS: Push: being in an undesirable place [PUSH OUT] o Local economic crises, cultural or political oppression, environmental or political crises Pull: aware of a more desirable place [PULL IN] o Economic opportunities, family reunification, freedoms, environment and amentities New place vs. old place (perceived vs. actual) o Is the new place actually better or is it just perceived? Its not as muc better as you think…people perceive the place they’re migrating to is better 3 main forms: Economic: a consequence of differences in wages Political: threat to survival due to political or religious beliefs Environmental: severe weather, desertification, pollution, etc. famine&drought RAVENSTEIN’S LAWS: A series of generalizations drawn from obsercations of migration behavior as illustrated in historical census data o Short distance o Intermediate steps o Men vs. Women: Individuals vs. Families (more men migrate internationally then women, and most international migrants are adults (without families) o Rural to Urban (intra-regional migration) o Large Cities (economic activity) Ex. People in Europe, where are people going, how, WHY? TYPES OF MIGRATION: 1. Free (Voluntary): (basic form) European examples: a search for “a better life” (great opportunities) o Population pressures: europe was over populated around 19th o Barriers today: restrict how migration moves o Intra-regional vs. international (within a country as oppose to international- Atlantic) 2. Forced Slavery: a long history Ex. People in Africa move to other parts of South America –not by choice 3. Impelled: movement where choice is limited ex. Safety (freely but impelled -forced in some ways) 4. Illegal: Political Issue ex. U.S. – Mexico, Chinese in North America, Africans in Europe, South Asians in Australia Refugees: decision [AFRICANS and EUROPE] Forced from their homes (and cannot return) for fear of persecution b/c of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion Movement - Refugee system: 1950s (following WW2) hundred of millions since then ex. India & Pakistan/Bangladesh, Vietnam, Rwanda, Yugoslavia today, most are still prompted by civil war, unrest, and ethnic conflict -b/t 20 and 50 M people of concern to UNHCR ~11 M ref. ~25 M ‘internally displaced people solutions? Not many… Voluntary repatriation Local settlement/integration Resettlement LECTURE 13: Cities & Urbanization: How many live in cities? What is a city? Key factors? lots of amenities: rec center’s, large population, cars, density, businesses Intro: Greater and greater proportions of he global pop. Are living in urban areas each year change over time: 10% to 50% in 200 yrs change over space: <30% to >80% Urban places can be thought of as: >centres of large and densely concentrated pop. >” technological change and innovation > “ concentrations of power and economic activity > “ cultural change > Places with reflect social, economic & political diversity > before 3500 BCE, our world was transiet people. We followed the country side following animals we would hung and harvest (plants, fruits) – we were nomatic (didn’t have any particular home) -society was equal -found enough food for enough people REASONS FOR CITY FORMATION: Surplus Theory: (strongest evidence) o Agricultural surplus irrigation where we found a way to produce our own food -domestication of plants (what seeds what plant?) & animals you could eat or you could use as tools to pull certain things all allow us to produce more food than we need not only for family but extra to others certain people are farmers producing food and others are the tools (baker, potter, miller) o Social stratification We need to figure out that “you are going to be this, you that” Hierarchical o Labour specialization o Rural to urban migration &the principle Variety of people clustering together of people in a permanent settlement doing economic activities- here we see a city! GROWTH OF CITIES: First Social/cultural and economic transformation: Profoundly different forms of settlements o New forms of economic activity o “ of social organization o “ social institution -cities have certain type of economic activity and political organization o People relied on others for their survival o Sedentary vs. Nomadic(living life wandering) Wandering places looking for food vs. staying her raise goats and farm and we rely on somebody else to make our food Cities b/t Mesopotamia & the Industrial Revolution o Small, compact o Trade, education, religion administration Industrial Revolution: Critical changes to ‘way of life’ o Agricultural productivity o Mass production o Trade o Demographic change o Massive rural to urban migration Level of Urbanization: increased rapidly Emergence of first truly large cities & their associated problems o Need factories & people to invent chemical fertilizers Change in birth and death rates Second Profound social/cultural & economic transformation: Proportion of population living in cities - increases tremendously “ working in agriculture and industry – people working in manufacturing jobs Size of “urban” places – small compact Homogeneous & heterogeneous societies – same people but in process homo: can talk and be religion with you people 1900-2000: Emergence of more developed cities urban “conurbations” Clusters of formally 2 cities o one time Mississauga, Scarborough, Oakville etc. and you never leave a city because they were all formally distinct areas but now they’ve grown into eachother so one big city 1950-2000: Emergence of less developed cities mega-cities & problems mega cities o mexico city in mexico – huge increase in population and the city can not handle it and there is not enough economic Conclusion: Urban living defines most of our lives – most of us live in cities (varying of size) relatively recent phenomena a fundamental social/cultural & economic transformation We are all vaguely aware of what a city and generally know what isn’t a city… defining these is next challenge. LECTURE 13: Global Variations Greater and greater proportions of the global population are living in urban areas each year o <30% to >80% process of urbanization is relatively recent o 10% to 5-% in 200 years Urbanization is fundamentally connected to economic and social/cultural change (including industrialization) Key factors of city: Population size & density #/range of amentities and businesses types of employment presence of infrastructure (ex. Roads) Political boundaries -Some languages do not differentiate between towns and cities eg. Ville Population sizes are important however, Oakville – wants to seem smaller, call themselves a town instead of a city Ancaster – village instead of city London- town in English terminology Urban Area: a community that is defined as being ‘urban’ , i.e a city, a town, a suburb etc. o Demographic criteria – if people exceeds pop. &/or if pop. Exceeds pop. Density o Economic criteria What kind of criteria a country would like to use- come up with an arbitrary # of people to be living in an area to call it an urban area (threshold) & density Variations from around the world… (Canada and US use dem. Criteria) o Canada: pop. >1000; density >400km2 o US: pop. >2500 o Japan: pop >50 000; density >60% of housing in ‘built up’ areas & manufacturing Urban vs. City? Ex. Canada is 80% urban; does that mean 80% of us live in cities? Urban: a general term (broad catch all) City: specific term – a place of a certain size, function & political status Village, Town & City: all urban areas A nucleated settlement (surrounded people around a core [downtown, mainstreet]) (FUNDAMENTAL DIFF IS B/T THEIR SIZE) Distinct residential & non-residential areas Central Business District (CBD) o Eg. ‘downtown’ or ‘main street’ Suburb: a specialized and peripheral area of a nucleated settlement o Neighbouring urban areas o Residential, industrial, commercial specialization o Ex. Oakville- commute there but come to Toronto to work (commercial office-low density office employment ex. Northeastern) Metropolitan Area: An agglomeration (cluster) of discontinuously built-up urban areas acting as an integrated economic unit o Ex. GTA(greater Toronto area)/GTAH/New York-New Jersey Canada: o Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs): One or more adjacent urban areas/municipalities Total population > 100 000 Population of ‘urban core’ >50 000 o Census Agglomerations (CAs): ex. Belleville or stratford Same as SMA but the urban core population >10 000 Canadian CMAs or CAS (urban areas): 81% Largest CMAs (cities): >50% Ex. City of Toronto: thens theres this boundary of SMA Toronto, Mississauga, Oakville, Brampton, Vaughan, Rchimond hill, Markham, Newmarket, Aurora, Pickering, Ajax etc. Urban growth: an increase in the absolute size of a city o number of people o area of land Urbanization: (look at snap pic) the transformation of population from rural to urban status o a fundamental re-organization of human society goes from moving around to sedentary things people do and work out o proportion of the population o de-urbanization 40% 30% **CAN YOU DIFFERENTIATE B/T URBAN GROWTH AND URBANIZATION: scenario 1: Urban Growth, No Urbanization (total pop increases, rural pop. Increases, % urban does not change still both 50%) scenario 2: Urban Growth & Urbanization (total pop increases, rural pop increases rural % decreases, urban(both) increases) scenario 3: No Urban Growth, but Urbanization (total pop stays same, rural(both) decreases, urban(both increases) LECTURE 14: Global Variations Percent of the population living in urban areas: C.1800 (or prior to Industrial Revolution) ~3%(World) vs. ~10% in the MDW 1900 ~14%(world) vs. ~ 50% in much of the MDW Today (2008) 50%(world) ~77% in the MDW(hasn’t changed that much because they are highly urbanized) ~41% in the LDQ (this is rapidly changing) • Urbanization: mirrors industrialization and economic development • Ex. Developed: North America, Europe, Japan (more in urban areas) Less developed: Russia, Latin America & South America, Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa (less in urban) the MDW is highly urbanized; LDW is low with few exceptions (Brazil) Urbanization Trends (By region): regional variations MDW & Latin America: >70% urbanized Africa & Asia: <40% urbanized 2025; Global >50% • In terms of the rate of urban growth: 1975-2000: • More Developed World: 0.83% • Less Developed World: 3.50% • Existing levels of urbanization (not a lot of room left) • Levels of economic development • Differential demographic trends i.e. urbanized countries have slow population growth urban growth can only result from further urbanization, but they are already highly urbanized – not much pot. For ppl in country to migrate to the city Urban Population Growth Rates: Low in more developed countries Highest in less developed countries ex. Africa & South Asia Levels of urbanization are higher in the MDW, but majority of very large cities are in the LDW Controversies: how many large cities and how large are they? # of large cities o >2M 171, >5M 55, >10M 22, >20M 4 o 4 Largest cities: New York, Tokyo, Seoul, Jakarta World’s largest city? Tokyo? o Not universally accepted b/c other cities sometimes listed as largest (look above and mexico city) Why the uncertainty? o It is a matter of definition of what counts as the city: there is a variety of diff ways it can be defined o These definitions can be based on a cities Political/Legal Definition Urban Agglomeration Sphere of influence o Ex. Toronto: City of Toronto: ~2.6 M (640 km2) Toronto CMA: ~ 5.1 M (5500 km2) Greater Toronto Area: ~ 5.6 M (7000 km2) o Tokyo: City: ~8 M Metropolitan Region: ~35-40 M o Chongqing Municipality: ~29 M (many residents are rural farm workers) Urbanized area: ~6 M THEREFORE, not that easy to identify biggest city Conclusion: • • Spatial and economic variations exist in the levels of urbanization, as well as the projected growth of cities While the MDW is also the more urbanized world vs. the Developing World is also becoming the urbanizing world Large and very large (mega) cities Consequences of this rapid urban growth in countries that are not sufficiently economically equipped to deal with it(school, no access to electricity, drinking water, no access to economic activity) e.g. LECTURE 15: Urban System & Urban Hierarchies Cities are funct. connected to other cities & to surrounding non-urban areas Much of the connections b/t cities is related to the absolute & relative locations of the cities THE LOCATION OF CITIES: Site: physical (absolute) location o Ex. Along a coast, at the heard of a bay Situation: relative location o Ex. Proximate to other urban centres, isolated, etc. EXAMPLE: New York’s Site and Situation o Site- on coast, well protected harbor o Situation- proximity to caribean –important for trade, access to interior part of continent [why its one of most well developed cities] Cities do not function independently, they are interconnected with other cities (near and far) in a system o Each city contributes to the urban system by providing goods and services and by consuming the good and services of other cities URBAN SYSTEM Central Place Theory: explain how cities in an urban system are spatially distributed o Cities compete w/ one another via the range of goods and services they provide o They are located in such a way as to maximize their accessibility to the largest possible range of consumers City: Hinterland (each city has man) Hinterland: the area (or region) served by an urban centre, and where its goods and services are available o i.e. Hamlet: gas, food, general store Greater range of goods & services (and more specialized they are) a city provides = greater the size of its hinterland o Consider New York vs. Hamilton (ppl travel distance to get that hamlet) Each city’s hinterland is proportional to its size, and its range of goods and services o Eg. Luxury car dealerships vs. used car lots; universities vs. public schools, etc. o Consider hockey teams- variety of diff skills Urban Hierarchy: ranking of cities based on population size & range Pyramid: o Bottom: many small cities serving small areas Small number of goods & services available o Top: few large cities serving large areas Wide range of goods & services available Ex. Global terms with a world (or global) hierarchy of cities New York & London – provide goods and services that other cities can’t provide (largest stock markets) Hierarchy Interdependence: e.g. Southern Ontario Hierarchical structure: size and function Urban systems follow one of two distributions: o Rank-size: population of an urban settlement is inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy ex. The nth largest city will be 1/n of the largest city Canada & US use this well o Primate City: urban systems which are dominated by a city that is significantly larger than all other cities, and that dominates the economic, political and social life of the country Ex. More than twice the size of the next largest o Primate-like cities: two or more very large cities: Ex. Brazil: Sao Paulo: ~19.6 M Rio de Janeiro: ~12.2 M India (‘the big 3’): Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta LECTURE 16: Urban Land Uses: Residential Areas: great diversity o from inner-city to suburban, from rich to poor to middleclass, from new to old, etc. Industrial Areas: o Heavy industrial production eg. Hamilton’s north end o Light (innovative) production eg. Mac Innovation Park, Airport Lands Commercial Areas: o Office – head office(d.t.), back offices(suburban), regional offices(edge cities) o Retail – store-front shoping, suburban, shopping malls, retail power centres (Vaughn mill), marquee/flagship retail d.t. Institutional Areas: o Universities, hospitals, schools, churches Transportation/Infrastructure: o Road, rail-lines, ports, airports, parking lots, warehousing, electricity lines, etc. Public Areas: o Parks, Civic Plazas (gore park), government buildings, arenas/stadiums, etc. Organization of urban space into these land uses: Urban structure or urban morphology o Structure/morphology is shaped primarily by competition for territory and location Competition for most desirable location Desirability is often determined by accessibility Greater accessibility translates into greater desirability Desirability equals ability/willingness to pay for land A commercial developer is willing (& able) to pay a lot of money for a relatively small piece of land close to the downtown core (the CBD). Why? o charge tenants high rent and the density of use will be high The same developer is willing to pay much less for property further away from the downtown. Why? o emand for such locations is less and thus they cannot charge as much in rent Given the high cost of land close to the downtown, only certain types of land uses can locate there PRINCIPLE OF ‘bid-rent’ CURVES: Ability (or willingness) to pay for land [1 office towers (commercial stores) 2 condo towers 3 single family homes 4 farmer] • • • How do these principles play out in the real-world? Example 1: Residential Development Consider the spatial patterns of places of residence Downtown Midtown(level of density begins to decline) Suburban(lower density) Distant Suburban(very low density) Example 2: Commercial Development Downtown- high-rise, office users Offices Downtown vs. Suburban(offices are small, lots of parking room around the building) Retail: downtown(most competitive, high demand) URBAN MODELS: 1. the Chicago School: Chicago as a representative of North American cities 2. Sector Model: Homer Hoyt a. City differentiated by sectors based on price of land b. Land prices are determined by distance from CBD (central business district) and procimity to other sectors i.e. accessibility c. Urban functions, once established are relatively permanent 3. Multiple Nuclei Model: Harris and Ullman o Attract & repel o Functional clusters or nuclei – every city has several (multiple of these nuclei) o Agglomeration: manufacturing, transportation, warehousing o Economic efficiencies attract: blue-collar housing repel: upper-middle class housing Common patterns of North American cities: note each city is unique (due to its own site and situational characteristics) o European, Latin American, Asian, African cities LECTURE 17: Code Red & GIS Health mapping project, using real-life health data gathered and process in a way that allows direct comparisons of what makes populations healthy CODE RED: REACTIONS Most important journalism project ever put together by The Hamilton Spectator 1. Citied in House of Commons & Provincial Legislature o City of Hamilton: new senior staff position to implement a neighbourhood development strategy 2. Speaking engagement & Media reaction (over 100 speeches & radio & TV & Print) GIS: Up above info 3. Impact on Health Cares o McMaster University: new health campus dt. o Canadian Medical Association: series of crosscountry town hall discussions 4. Impact on Education (mcmaster nursing available to study maternal health issues at the neighbourhood level) Road dust mapping: only 18% of particulate matter comes from smoke stacks GIS Jobs: cartographers, mapping technician, enviro scientists etc. get lots of money -courses at mac to lead you there LECTURE 18: Urban Planning & Local Planning Issues: • What is urban planning? The organization(plan) of land uses, transportation, and social services to improve the built, economic and social environments of communities Thinking of how everything is allocated Helps to solve problems related to past/current development (residential neighbourhood and in the process of competition for land in comes a factory or slaughter house) Aspiring to make development in the future, better (ways to develop a city in a better way) Where did urban planning come from? Response to the appalling sanitary, social, and economic conditions of rapidly-growing industrial cities Recall ‘urbanization’ Recall ‘Industrial Revolution’-transformation of economy *happened so quickly cities were exploding in growth Initially: architects and civil engineers (began to think of a logically way to decide how a city is to be structured) Later: public health specialists, economists, sociologists, lawyers and geographers(organization of space; most direct way into a career of urban planning) • • Who does the planning? The City- municipal government and its planning department The private sector(developers, real estate companies) The Public- has a very important role, the public has an opportunity for their input/response • What are they planning exactly? What things do they plan? Land Uses Services(schools, hospitals) ex. In Hamilton, there is a shrinking population of children, which means there is an abundant amount of schools which can be used for other services Infrastructure Transportation Employment Areas Housing Environment Some of the Challenges of Urban Planning: Meeting the needs of competing interests- an area where a developer wants to put up a high condo tower in the middle of small individual houses, interests of home owners and the developers are competing Making the city ‘better’- better for whom? Planning for a better tomorrow without compromising the present (and the past)- balancing the desires and wants for tomorrow while dealing with today To make better city and meet needs of competing interes; they are planning Various spatial scales: Regional Plans- Provincial government Municipal Plans- City of Hamilton, master transportation plans, growth and development Neighourhood Plans- land uses and transportation policies for a particular area Zoning: Implementation & enforcement. Set of by-laws used to restrict development Ex. THE PAN-AM STADIUM PLAN/CONTROVERSY: • Stadium Controversy: Background Context 2009: Toronto-Hamilton won the right to host the 2015 Pan-Am Games Hamilton slated to host track & field, some swimming, cycling (velodrome), and soccer events The City, along with the Pan-Am organizing committee decided to build a new stadium • Initial options: Ivor Wynne, Confederation Park, West Harbour • Confederation Park: recreational lands were not to be lost to development • Ivor Wynne: residential neighbourhood, too small, too difficult to build stadium • West Harbour was selected and approved Favoured site: good site for remediation (environmental problemsindustrial area) and take advantage of public amentities Summer 2010: the tiger cats walked away Without a legacy tenant, the Pan-Am organizing committee walked away as well Track and Field= York University Tiger Cats proposed two new sites: Aldershot and East Mountain Aldershot (Burlington) East Mountain (Hamilton) Public opposition The two sides remained dead-locked • Tiger Cats advocating the East Mountain (suburban) site • The city advocating the West Harbour(downtown) Fall 2010: McMaster Innovation Site, Industrial Railway Land Area The Final Decision: wait for it … Stadium site? Ivor Wynne Stadium Controversy not over: • Plan: preservation of half of the old stadium • Build entire stadium • Total cost: -40% by the city -15% by the province -45% by the federal government -0% by the tiger cats • Two main groups: • Supporters of the City of Hamilton • Supports of the Hamilton Tiger Cats Competing interests: A business owner vs. the community CONCLUSIONS: Competing visions of the stadium and the utility of public infrastructure spending • The city: a tool to redevelop part of the city and stimulate economic activity • The tiger cars: a tool to generate additional revenue Competing views of where the stadium should go • Central city (downtown), periphery of the city in a highly visible location Competing views of the fan experience • Driveway to driveway vs. transit LECTURE 19: Economic Activity: Economic Base: the set of economic activities upon which a community or region relies in order to generate income from elsewhere E.g. Detroit & Oshawa: automative manufacturing e.g. Los Angeles: entertainment, tourism, etc. E.g. Ottawa & Washington D.C.: government e.g. Hamilton & Pittsburg: steel E.g. Battle Creek, MI: cereal manufacturing E.g. Akron, OH: tires and rubber processing (close to Detroit) this connects to the community identity: eg. Detroit “Motor City” or “Motown” eg. Cincinnati: “Porkopolis” sports teams: o Chicago bulls (slaughter house) o Pittsburg steelers (steel) SECTORS OF THE MODERN ECONOMY: Stages of the process of producing goods and services: A. Goods Producing Sectors: 1. Primary: identification & extraction of raw materials (natural resources) Ex. Agriculture, forestry, mining, fishing 2. Secondary: transformation into finished products Ex. Manufacturing, processing, construction (lumber into furniture) B. Service Sectors: 3. Tertiary: distribution and servicing of goods Ex. Consumer and business services, merchants, grocers, retailers, mechanics Ex. Doctors, lawyers Selling (car dealership) fixing car when breaks down (mechanic), lawyer of major incorporation 4. Quaternary: Government-related economic activities, management, and higher-order services Ex. Military, research, education, government Ex. head offices of TNC’s, media&communication/journalism Ex. Anything funded by another organization ex. Teacher, military • Levels of economic development are indicated by the relative sizes of the different sectors Less developed economies are either primary and/or secondary The most developed economies are tertiary or quatienary • Canada & U.S.: ~85% of employment Primary & Secondary: jobs declined Tertiary & Quaternary jobs increased Primary economic activity (i.e. agriculture) has declined steadily in North America since about 1900 Secondary economic activity (i.e. manufacturing) has declined steadily since the 1950s Tertiary and quaternary economic activities have grown (proportionally) throughout the 20th Century Utilizing diff. spatial perspectives, we can explore the geographies of economic activity ie. within cities ex. Central business district, wholesale, light manufacturing, lowclass residential, medium-class residential ie. Globally ex. ‘core’ vs. ‘semi-peripheral’ vs. ‘peripheral’ LECTURE 20: Primary Economic Activities (Agriculture) • North America’s early economic success: abundance of natural resources E.g. agricultural land, timber, fish stocks, etc. Essential products for food, clothing and shelter • Spatial and temporal changes to these key primary economic activities • E.g. agriculture, forestry, mining, fishing, etc. 1. Agriculture: Decline since Industrialization in the 19th Century Today: employment and GDP Major food production economy(one of the largest food producers) • e.g. major exporter of wheat, corn, rice, and hundreds of other agricultural goods Technological advances & increased productivity = fewer agricultural workers Agricultural Production – North America vs. World: Wheat & Meat • • Agricultural Imports & Exports Producers and consumers of food Pressures to increase productivity via investment in technology => rise of agribusinesses (recall TNCs) Loss of family farms-replaced with larger agribusinesses Land and the environment, coupled with agricultural specialization has created distinct ‘geographies of agriculture’ 2. Mining, Forestry and Fisheries: Declining reserves/stocks as North Americans have exhausted the amount of supply Mining An important part of the economy for certain areas of North America Eg. Northern Canada(canadian shield, Western North America(rocky mountains), Eastern North America(apalashian mountains), Southern US(Gulf of Mexico), Great Plains/Prairies 3. Fishing Over-fishing have reduced fishable stocks in most areas Fishing is still a key industry for some areas 4. Forestry A key resource for extraction in parts of North America IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION: • Most important human activity for past 12,000 years Employment: ~ 45% of the world’s working population Land area: ~30% of the world’s landmass • Regional differences: Parts of Asia and Africa: >80% of the labour force - Bhutan, Asia and Burkina, Africa= >90% North America: ~2% Agriculture is a system of food production A system is a set of interacting components that work together as a unit A food-producing system includes: • Land(and climate) • A series of inputs(i.e. labour, fertilizers and machinery) • Outputs(i.e. the products and commodities) • Consumers • Two primary forms of agricultural systems exist: • 1. Subsistence, and 2. commercial Each has many specific subtypes • • Subsistence (Traditional) Agriculture Utilizes low technological inputs Small scale Food for local consumption Typical forms: • Shifting Cultivation (slash and burn agriculture) • Pastoralism(normadic) Typically found in: Less developed world • Commercial (Modern) Agriculture Utilizes high technological inputs(fertilizers, antibiotics, steroids) Operations are large scale Food for regional and or global trade Typical forms: • Family farms • Agribusinesses • Plantations Typically found In: The more developed world but not entirely • Why are agricultural activities located where they are? Physical Factors(climate, flat or mountainous) Cultural Factors(some people don’t eat specific animals) Political Factors Economic Factors Result: agricultural land-use patterns LECTURE 21: Economic Activity: • MDW: Transition Agriculture => Industry => Services • Industry: key to economic vitality for MDW • Newly industrializing countries? The same applies – industry is key • Today we explore the history of industrial production and is changing global geography Pre-Industrial Production Localized and rudimentary Craftsmen/artisans i.e. pottery, clothing , tools, food (bread), etc • • The Industrial Revolution: 18th & 19th Centuries A ‘revolution’ in the way goods were produced The steam engine (by James Watt) made this ‘revolution’ possible Machines replaced the skilled hands of labourers, new sourced of energy were harnessed (i.e. coal) Locations: Diffusion Northern England (the ‘midlands’) C. 1760s Europe (the Ruhr valley) Diffused c. early 19th century The United States (Pennsylvania & Ohio) Diffused c. early 19th century Key sites due to abundance of coal (energy) Essential Components 1. Large-scale factory production 2. Highly capitalized mechanization 3. Agglomeration of industries (near sources of energy) 4. Rural to urban migration • The Industrial Revolution: Two Current Issues 1. The Post-Industrial World Declining industrial activity Transition from Industrial to Services Transition is uneven and abrupt • Consider: job losses and under-employment • Consider: Detroit, Buffalo & Hamilton • Consider: Toronto, New York 2. The Newly Industrialized (Industrializing) World • e.g. South Korea, Mexico, Brazil, China, etc. • Keys: • Containerization • Branch Plants • Domestic market • The traditional (and changing) geography of industrial production/manufacturing • Traditional areas: North America, Europe & Japan Majority of global manufacturing output Newly emerging areas: East Asia South and southeast Asia Latin America Ex. • • • • • • • • • U.S. northeast -Shifting to the south Western Europe- numerous local industrial areas, decline since WW2 Eastern Asia- Japan: emerged following the end of WWII • High-quality consumer goods • Low labour costs & high productivity Globalization: shift of manufacturing away from the MDW towards the LDW Eastern Asia: emergent importance 1970s: South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore 1980s: China 1990s: Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines EASTERN & SOUTH EASTERN ASIA: • Assembly • Export-processing zones (EPZ) • Duties (taxes) • Infrastructure • Regulations • • • TNCs: primary & tertiary economic areas • Secondary activities Largest TNCs > national economies TNC: • HQ • Factories LECTURE 22: Theories of Industrial Location Theory: • Where does industry/manufacturing locate? • Location is bound by particular constraints Consider: Steel plant Locate near key inputs? • Coal and iron ore are heavy/bulky to transport Locate near key markets • Steel is heavy/bulky to transport • Today: principles of location theory - Weber’s ‘Least Cost’ industrial location theory • • • • Spatial organization of production: the ‘tyranny of distance’ Transportation costs money: locational-decisions minimize transportation General theory of plant/factory location: Alfred Weber (economist) Theory of the Location of Industries (1909) Primary emphasis: Role of transport costs in plant location INDUSTRIAL LOCATION: trade-off based on distance Minimize transportation costs Ex. Material oriented (raw materials that are used are very heavy/bulky/expensive to ship, the location is more likely to be closer to the materials Ex. Market oriented (if materials are cheaper but the cost of shipping is more expensive the location will be closer to the market (fragile, perishable items) WEBER’S MODEL OF PLANT LOCATION: Objective: locate a plant so as to maximize profits by minimizing transport costs Find a location P(processing plant) along the line between S(Source of raw materials) and M(Market for finished product) What happens if more than one raw maerial is used? Manufacturing occur? o Cost of transport…measured by weights (raw material 1 & raw material 3) Criticisms: Weber: least cost tendencies were the norm Today: model must be modified to account for other factors of productions: Footloose industries & TNCs Transport costs Labour costs Industrial location decision-making today: complex Weber: illustrated principles of spatial locational decision-making o Ex. TNC’s today: not just transport costs, but other site and situational factors (least cost based on labour) Why do manufacturing plants locate in particular places? One vs. multiple factor(s) Maximize advantages & minimize disadvantages Forecasting (changes in future- what is going to come- climate change) 1. Situation: Markets o ‘Market’ oriented: (locate facilities closer) o (produce fragile things) Transport rates Weight gain Ex. Bottling plants -Where our finished products are headed to? -very major city has a plant outside that makes bottles because it is relatively inexpensive to add syrup to water Perishable products 2. Situation: Raw Materials & Intermediate Goods Raw materials (lumbar) Intermediate goods (in auto sector the plastics into making car) Key factors: • Weight loss during the manufacturing process? • Quality, cost and availability of the raw materials? • Differential transportation costs? Ex. A lot of weight loss is from making cereal – has to be located near the plant 3. Situation: Transportation Costs Terminal cost: fixed(doesn’t matter how far- loading/unloading same) Line-haul costs: variable(how far shipping-labour, truck driver) Terminal costs are distributed over the length of the haul Transport costs differ between modes 4. Site: Major cost item Highly skilled workforce -> higher wages -> fewer options of where to locate Relative cost of labour is typically very high • Labor-intensive = low-wage areas 5. Site: Infrastructure Transportation facilities, communications utilities, and other services 6. Site: Energy Developed World: role of energy • Energy availability Ubiquitous • Notable exceptions: Industrializing countries 7. Site: Agglomeration • Clustering of plants in one place Production and transport costs can be reduced • e.g. auto industry 7. Site & Situation: Other Factors 7. Political stability, tax incentives, environmental conditions, availability of land, access to capital, etc. Consider: EPZ (Asia and Latin America)
Вы набрали правильно, - сказал он осторожно, - но это служба сопровождения. Звонивший некоторое время молчал. - О… понимаю.